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BBC Sport - Football - Women's Football
20 February 2015 Last updated at 17:52 GMTSmith signs new Arsenal contract
Arsenal Ladies captain and assistant coach Kelly Smith signs a new contract with the Women's Super League side.Wonder goal scorer Roche signs for US club
Fifa Puskas Award runner-up Stephanie Roche agrees a two-year deal with US Women's Soccer League club Houston Dash.
- Reading removed from FA Women's Cup
- Welsh Football Wales captain left out of squad
- England women beaten by USA
- Scotland's Murray joins Bristol
- Birmingham City Ladies sign Ayisi
- England ready for USA's 'big stars'
- Bristol sign Cardiff's Townsend
- Striker Smith ends England career
- Chapman recalled by England women
- Houghton unfazed by synthetic turf
- Durham Ladies sign defender Nelson
- Reading FC Women sign striker Follis
- James re-signs for Bristol Academy
- Notts County Ladies sign Crichton
- Liverpool host Sunderland in opener
Video & Audio
- Watch video Injured Duggan in 'race against time'
- Watch video Stephanie Roche scores wonder goal
- Watch video Goal 'could help boost women's game'
- Watch video Watch World Cup draw blunder
- Watch video World Cup draw excites England boss
- Watch video Women fight for football on grass
- Watch video Roche aims for Fifa award history
- Watch video England v England: Stars play name game
- Watch video Carney set for 'amazing' 100th cap
Latest FootballUpcoming Fixtures Wed 25 Mar 2015 - Women's Super League
- Liverpool Ladies v Sunderland Ladies 19:45
- Birmingham City Ladies v Manchester City Women 14:00
- Notts County Ladies v Chelsea Ladies 17:00
- Sunderland Ladies v Manchester City Women 18:30
- Liverpool Ladies v Birmingham City Ladies 19:45
- Bristol Academy Ladies v Chelsea Ladies 19:00
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- Arsenal Ladies v Bristol Academy Ladies 19:45
- Sunderland Ladies v Bristol Academy Ladies 18:30
- Birmingham City Ladies v Notts County Ladies 14:00
- Chelsea Ladies v Liverpool Ladies 14:00
- Manchester City Women v Arsenal Ladies 14:00
View all fixtures All times UK
Women's Super League summary table; it charts each team by position, team name, games played, total goal difference and points Position Team Played Goal Difference Points Moving up 1 Arsenal Ladies 0 0 0 Moving up 2 Birmingham City Ladies 0 0 0 Moving up 3 Bristol Academy Ladies 0 0 0 Moving down 4 Chelsea Ladies 0 0 0 Moving up 5 Everton Ladies 0 0 0 Moving down 6 Liverpool Ladies 0 0 0 Moving down 7 Manchester City Women 0 0 0 Moving down 8 Notts County Ladies 0 0 0
What's happening where and when
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Independent Research - Synthetic Turf CouncilSite Search
Science is an important focus for the STC. That's why we actively collect independent research and studies from third-party organizations about synthetic turf and its system components under the following topics: Player Performance & Risk of Injury; Environmental & Health Risk of Synthetic Turf with Crumb Rubber Infill; Heat; Staph & MRSA
Player Performance & Risk of Injury »
FIFA, Prozone Study, 2011
- This is the third study FIFA has commissioned to analyze and compare player performance during games played on top quality synthetic turf and grass. All three studies and other FIFA research are available here: http://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/footballdevelopment/pitchequipment/footballturf/testsresearch/studies.html
- Conclusions: These studies found that no significant differences exist between team and player performance on football [synthetic] turf and natural grass.
Hagglund, M., PT, PhD; Zwerver, J., MD, PhD; Ekstrand, J., MD, PhD, American Journal of Sports Medicine, June 2011, 0363546511408877
- Patellar tendinopathy is a relatively mild but fairly common condition among elite soccer players, and the recurrence rate is high.
- This study investigated the epidemiology of patellar tendinopathy in 2,229 elite male soccer players from 51 European elite soccer clubs playing on natural grass and synthetic turf between 2001 and 2009.Objective: To compare the risk for acute injuries between natural grass (NG) and third-generation artificial turf (3GAT) in male professional football.
- Conclusion: "Exposure to artificial turf did not increase the prevalence or incidence of injury.”
Bjørneboe J, Bahr R, Andersen TE, 2010 British Journal of Sports Medicine, 44: 794-798.
- Methods: All injuries sustained by players with a first-team contract were recorded by the medical staff of each club, from the 2004 throughout the 2007 season. An injury was registered if the player was unable to take fully part in football activity or match play.
- Results: A total of 668 match injuries, 526 on grass and 142 on artificial turf, were recorded. The overall acute match injury incidence was 17.1 (95% CI 15.8 to 18.4) per 1000 match hours; 17.0 (95% CI 15.6 to 18.5) on grass and 17.6 (95% CI 14.7 to 20.5) on artificial turf. Correspondingly, the incidence for training injuries was 1.8 (95% CI 1.6 to 2.0); 1.8 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.0) on grass and 1.9 (95% CI 1.5 to 2.2) on artificial turf respectively. No significant difference was observed in injury location, type or severity between turf types.
- Conclusion: No significant differences were detected in injury rate or pattern between 3GAT and NG in Norwegian male professional football.
Ekstrand J, Hägglund M, Fuler CW, 2010, Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01118.x
- The objective of this study was to compare incidences and patterns of injury for female and male elite teams when playing football on artificial turf and grass. Twenty teams (15 male, 5 female) playing home matches on third-generation artificial turf were followed prospectively; their injury risk when playing on artificial turf pitches was compared with the risk when playing on grass. Individual exposure, injuries (time loss) and injury severity were recorded by the team medical staff. In total, 2105 injuries were recorded during 246000h of exposure to football. Seventy-one percent of the injuries were traumatic and 29% overuse injuries. There were no significant differences in the nature of overuse injuries recorded on artificial turf and grass for either men or women. The incidence (injuries/1000 player-hours) of acute (traumatic) injuries did not differ significantly between artificial turf and grass, for men (match 22.4 v 21.7; RR 1.0 (95% CI 0.9–1.2); training 3.5 v 3.5; RR 1.0 (0.8–1.2)) or women [match 14.9 v 12.5; RR 1.2 (0.8–1.8); training 2.9 v 2.8; RR 1.0 (0.6–1.7)]. During matches, men were less likely to sustain a quadriceps strain (P=0.031) and more likely to sustain an ankle sprain (P=0.040) on artificial turf.
Soligard T, Bahr R, Andersen TE, 2010, Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01174.x
- The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the risk of acute injuries among youth male and female footballers playing on third-generation artificial turf compared with grass. Over 60000 players 13–19 years of age were followed in four consecutive Norway Cup tournaments from 2005 to 2008. Injuries were recorded prospectively by the team coaches throughout each tournament. The overall incidence of injuries was 39.2 (SD: 0.8) per 1000 match hours; 34.2 (SD: 2.4) on artificial turf and 39.7 (SD: 0.8) on grass. After adjusting for the potential confounders age and gender, there was no difference in the overall risk of injury [odds ratio (OR): 0.93 (0.77–1.12), P=0.44] or in the risk of time loss injury [OR: 1.05 (0.68–1.61), P=0.82] between artificial turf and grass. However, there was a lower risk of ankle injuries [OR: 0.59 (0.40–0.88), P=0.008], and a higher risk of back and spine [OR: 1.92 (1.10–3.36), P=0.021] and shoulder and collarbone injuries [OR: 2.32 (1.01–5.31), P=0.049], on artificial turf compared with on grass. In conclusion, there was no difference in the overall risk of acute injury in youth footballers playing on third-generation artificial turf compared with grass.
Turf Roots Magazine 01, pp. 8-10
- A report of medical research conducted by FIFA’s Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) comparing injuries sustained at the FIFA U-17 tournament in Peru, which was played entirely on "football turf” (synthetic turf) with the injuries sustained at previous U-17 tournaments, which were played mainly on well-manicured grass. "The research showed that there was very little difference in the incidence, nature and causes of injuries observed during those games played on artificial turf compared with those played on grass.”
Kathrin Steffen, Thor Einar Andersen, Roald Bahr
British Journal of Sports Medicine 2007; 41:i33-i37
- Objective: "To investigate the risk of injury on artificial turf compared with natural grass among young female football [soccer] players.”
- Conclusion: "In the present study among young female football [soccer] players, the overall risk of acute injury was similar between artificial turf and natural grass.”
Colin W Fuller, Randall W Dick, Jill Corlette, Rosemary Schmalz
British Journal of Sports Medicine 2007; 41 (Supplement 1):i20-i26 (Part 1: match injuries)
British Journal of Sports Medicine 2007; 41 (Supplement 1):i27-i32 (Part 2: training injuries)
Abstracts available at http://bjsm.bmj.com
- Objective: "To compare the incidence, nature, severity and cause of match injuries (Part 1) and training injuries (Part 2) sustained on grass and new generation turf by male and female footballers.”
- Methods: The National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System was used for a two-season (August to December) prospective study of American college and university football teams (2005 season: men 52 teams, women 64 teams; 2006 season: men 54 teams, women 72 teams).
- Conclusion of both Part 1 and Part 2: There were no major differences in the incidence, severity, nature or cause of match injuries or training injuries sustained on new generation artificial turf and grass by either male or female players.
J. Ekstrand, T. Timpka, M. Hagglund
British Journal of Sports Medicine 2006; 40:975-980
- Objective: "To compare injury risk in elite football [soccer] played on artificial turf compared with natural grass.”
- Conclusion: "No evidence of a greater risk of injury was found when football was played on artificial turf compared with natural grass. The higher incidence of ankle sprain on artificial turf warrants further attention, although this result should be interpreted with caution as the number of ankle sprains was low.”
Environmental & Health Risk of Synthetic Turf with Crumb Rubber Infill »
Tabor Academy – Synthetic Turf Athletic Field Evaluation
CDM Smith, March 13, 2014
- The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential water quality impacts of the synthetic turf field at Tabor Academy in Marion, MA.
- Conclusion: "...stormwater runoff from the athletic field is not a source of pollutants/contaminants that would pose a threat to the harbor."
Schilirò, T1, et al., Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 2013
- The aim of the present study was to develop an environmental analysis drawing a comparison between artificial turf football fields and urban areas relative to concentrations of particles (PM10 and PM2.5) and related polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aromatic hydrocarbons (BTXs), and mutagenicity of organic extracts from PM10 and PM2.5.
- Both organic extract mutagenicity values were comparable with the organic extract mutagenicity reported in the literature for urban sites.
- On the basis of environmental monitoring, artificial turf football fields present no more exposure risks than the rest of the city.
Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ, 2013
- "The SVOCs identified based on library matches of their mass spectra were not present in toxicological databases evaluated and many are ubiquitous part of consumer products. Similarly, the metal concentrations measured in field samples indicate that the risk would be de minimus among all populations expected to use artificial turf fields.”
Prepared for Rubber Manufacturers Association by ChemRisk, Inc., August 1, 2013
- A report by an independent environmental firm on the human health and ecological risks from ground rubber in playgrounds and sports fields, and based on a thorough review of studies from advocates and opponents to the use of recycled tire materials.
Department of Public Health and Microbiology, University of Torino, Italy, 2012
Dr. Paul J. Lioy and Dr. Clifford Weisel, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, October 31, 2011, Submitted to NJDEP
Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Public Health, Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection, July 2010
- The headline from the July 30, 2010 News Release from the Connecticut Department of Public Health announced, "Result of State Artificial Turf Fields Study: No Elevated Health Risk." Comprising separate reports from the four state agencies listed above, the Final Report presents the results of an extensive study into the health and environmental risks associated with outdoor and indoor synthetic turf fields containing crumb rubber infill. "This study presents good news regarding the safety of outdoor artificial turf fields," stated Department of Public Health Commissioner Dr. J. Robert Galvin.
- The above link is to the Overall Executive Summary, which includes links to the News Release, the four separate reports from the state agencies, and the report by the Peer Review Committee from The Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering (see below).
Nancy Simcox, Anne Bracker, John Meyer, Section of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Connecticut Heath Center, July 2010
University of Connecticut Health Center, The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, the Department of Public Health and DEP, July 2010
Human Health Risk Assessment of Artificial Turf Fields Based upon Results from Five Fields in Connecticut
Connecticut Department of Public Health, Program in Environmental and Occupational Health Assessment, July 2010
Peer Review of an Evaluation of the Health and Environmental Impacts Associated with Synthetic Turf Playing Fields
Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering, June 2010
Xiaolin Li, William Berger, Craig Musante, MaryJane Incorvia Mattina, Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Analytical Chemistry, May 2010
Joost G. M. van Rooij Æ, Frans J. Jongeneelen, International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, (2010) 83:105–110
- This study provides evidence that uptake of PAH of football players active on artificial grass fields with rubber crumb infill is minimal. If there is any exposure, then the uptake is very limited and within the range of uptake of PAH from environmental sources and/or diet.
Simon, Rachel, University of California, Berkeley, Laboratory for Manufacturing and Sustainability, February 2010
Prepared for: The Corporation for Manufacturing Excellence (Manex)
- "The research conducted by Manex and Berkeley is among the most comprehensive reports to date, reviewing and assessing existing studies from the past 12 years, as well as containing independent analysis. The conclusions of this study validate key findings from other recent studies, demonstrating the materials are both cost-effective and safe."
- Extensive research has pointed to the conclusion that these fields result in little, if any, exposure to toxic substances. A review of existing literature points to the relative safety of crumb rubber fill playground and athletic field surfaces. Generally, these surfaces, though containing numerous elements potentially toxic to humans, do not provide the opportunity in ordinary circumstances for exposure at levels that are actually dangerous. Numerous studies have been carried out on this material and have addressed numerous different aspects of the issue. For the most part, the studies have vindicated defenders of crumb rubber, identifying it as safe, cost-effective, and responsible use for tire rubber.
Recent issues that have surfaced relate to Carbon Black and Lead, however, for the vast majority of applications, serious physical harm has not occurred from these particulates.
- See April 5, 2010 Manex/UC Berkeley Press Release, Manex and UC Berkeley Issue Study on Recycled Rubber in Artificial Turf Applications
Safety Study of Artificial Turf Containing Crumb Rubber Infill Made from Recycled Tires: Measurements of Chemicals and Particulates in the Air, Bacteria in the Turf, and Skin Abrasions Caused by Contact with the Surface
Office of Environmental Health and Hazard Assessment, Department of Resources Recycling and Recovery, Editor. 2010, State of California
- PM2.5 and associated elements (including lead and other heavy metals) were either below the level of detection or at similar concentrations above artificial turf athletic fields and upwind of the fields. No public health concern was identified.
National Exposure Research Laboratory Office of Research and Development U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2009
- This study and statements of safety by the U.S. EPA of synthetic turf fields and playgrounds containing crumb rubber from recycled tires complements the study and statement of safety by the CPSC in 2008 (see below). In its Press Release, the EPA summarized its findings, including the following:
- The levels of particulate matter, metals, and volatile organic compound concentrations in the air samples above the synthetic turf were similar to background levels;
- All air concentrations of particulate matter and lead were well below levels of concern;
- Zinc, which is a known additive in tires…was found to be below levels of concern.
- See December 10, 2009 EPA Press Release, Limited EPA Study Finds Low Level of Concern in Samples of Recycled Tires from Ballfield and Playground Surfaces
New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2009
Lim, L. and R. Walker, New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and Department of Health, Editor, 2009
- Initial findings suggested that there was a low likelihood of risk to the environment or public health via drinking water from ground or surface water contamination.
- Further, the concentrations of VOCs and particulate matter detected above the surface of the fields did not exceed background levels, and thus do not suggest an increased risk from the installation of these fields.
Beausoleil, Monique et. al, Public Health Branch, Montreal Health and Social Services Agency, June 2009
Hofstra, U., INTRON, March 2009
- On the basis of the new observations, we conclude that, after 7 years of use, zinc does not penetrate the underlays. This is consistent with the laboratory tests, in which it was calculated that zinc leaching will not occur until a period of 230 to 1800 years has elapsed2. It can also be concluded that the concentrations of zinc in the drainage water are not significantly higher than the concentrations in the rainwater.
- After 7 years, there is no evidence that the use of rubber infill poses a risk in terms of the leaching of zinc.
Elizabeth Denly, Katarina Rutkowski, Karen M. Vetrano, Ph.D., TRC, Prepared for NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, May 2008
- To date, eleven human health risk assessments were identified that evaluated exposure to the constituents in crumb rubber. Although each risk assessment was conducted using distinct assumptions and evaluated different concentrations of COPCs (chemicals of potential concern) in crumb rubber, all had a similar conclusion: exposure to COPCs from the crumb rubber may occur, however, the degree of exposure is likely to be too small through ingestion, dermal or inhalation to increase the risk for any health effect. The risk assessments have been conducted primarily by state agencies, consultants, and industry groups.
U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, NEWS from CPSC, July 30, 2008
- The CPSC staff conducted tests of synthetic turf products for analysis of total lead content and accessible lead. In the above News Release it concludes that, "young children are not at risk from exposure to lead in these fields.”
- For a summary of the analytical methods used and the test results, see CPSC Staff Analysis and Assessment of Synthetic Turf "Grass Blades".
D. Michael Johns, Ph.D., Windward Environmental LLC, Seattle, WA, February 2008
- Review of available scientific literature and publications in order to provide an assessment about potential risks to the environment from zinc and chemicals contained in crumb rubber infill. "...water that percolates through turf fields with tire crumb is not toxic..."
McNitt, A.S., 2008 April 9, 2008
- Total microbial numbers were lower in synthetic turf systems when compared to natural grass fields. Staphylococcus aureus was not found on any of the playing surfaces.
Bristol, S.G. and V.C. McDermott, Milone & MacBroom, Inc., December 2008
- Heat: On hot sunny days, surface temp of the fibers was 40-50 degrees hotter than ambient temp; air temp at 2’ above surface or under cloud cover was near ambient. Crumb rubber was only a few degrees hotter than ambient. Watering the field had a short-term effect.
- Off-gassing: EHHI identified certain compounds of concern in its very limited 2007 laboratory study of the chemicals contained in crumb rubber – benzothiazole, volatile nitrosamines, and 4-(tert-octyl) Phenol. MMI tested for these compounds in the air above the synthetic turf fields with crumb rubber infill at several locations. A "very low concentration” of benzothiazole was found at 1 of 2 fields -- the other compounds were not detected.
- Leaching: Testing done over one year period. Test for zinc, lead, selenium, and cadmium, and compared to lowest aquatic life criterion for each element. Only zinc detected, and then well below water quality standard.
New York City Department of Health, August 2008
- Our review of the available information on crumb rubber and crumb rubber infilled turf fields indicates that ingestion, dermal or inhalation exposures to chemicals in or released from crumb rubber do not pose a significant public health concern.
Hofstra, U., INTRON, 2008
D. Michael Johns, Ph.D., Windward Environmental LLC, Seattle, WA, January 2008
- Review of available scientific literature and publications in order to provide an assessment about potential risks of human health to children and teenagers and the risks to the environment from precipitation runoff.
Zhang JJ, Han IK, Zhang L, Crain W. et. al, 2008
Lamie, P. Memorandum to: Richard Reine, Director Concord Public Works, April 24. 2007 [cited 2008 4/28]
- There is little exposure to and thus little risk from PAHs or other chemicals associated with ground rubber used in artificial turf fields to the human population.
San Francisco Recreation and Park Department, 2008
- SFE recognizes that human health risks are minimal from exposure to the crumb rubber infill used with synthetic turf products, according to the OEHHA study.
Dr. Robert Moretto, ADEME / ALIAPUR / FIELDTURF TARKETT, 2007
- According to current research, after a year’s experimentation, the results on the 42 physicochemical parameters identified and on the ecotoxocological tests show that water passing through artificial turf using as filling either virgin TPE or EPDM or granulates resulting from the recycling of PUNR are not likely to affect water resources in the short and medium term.
- In conclusion to its study, the INERIS stipulates that the health risks associated with the inhalation of VOC and aldehydes emitted by artificial surfaces on pitches in outdoor situations present no actual cause for concern as regards human health.
- Worst case indoor VOC and aldehyde concentrations do not pose a health concern for adult or child athletes.
Hofstra, U., INTRON, January 2007
- Based on the available literature on exposure to rubber crumb by swallowing, inhalation and skin contact and our experimental investigations on skin contact we conclude, that there is not a significant health risk due to the presence of rubber infill for football players an artificial turf pitch with rubber infill from used car tyres.
California Integrated Waste Management Board, 2007, Integrated Waste Management Board: Sacramento, CA
- Using the highest published levels of chemicals released by recycled tires, the likelihood for noncancer health effects was calculated for a one-time ingestion of ten grams of tire shreds by a typical three-year-old child; only exposure to zinc exceeded its health-based screening value (i.e. promulgated by a regulatory agency such as OEHHA or U.S. EPA). Overall, we consider it unlikely that a one-time ingestion of tire shreds would produce adverse health effects. Seven of the chemicals leaching from tire shreds in published studies were carcinogens, yielding a 1.2 x 10-7 (1.2 in ten million) increased cancer risk for the one-time ingestion described above. This risk is well below the di minimis level of 1 x 10-6 (one in one million), generally considered an acceptable cancer risk due to its small magnitude compared to the overall cancer rate (OEHHA, 2006).
Evaluation of health risks caused by skin contact with rubber granules used in synthetic turf pitches
Dr. Christa Hametner, Vienna, Dr. Hans Theodor Grunder, Berlin, 2007
- No significant health risks by either direct contact to rubber granules or by contact to rubber dust - with the exception of the risk of allergic reactions in indoor applications.
Laboratory for Ecological Risk Assessment, 2007
- Human health risks posed by leaching of zinc are negligible as zinc concentrations in the water do not exceed drinking water standards. The risks of zinc to public health are of no concern: the human toxicity of zinc is low and WHO drinking water criteria are not exceeded.
van Bruggen, M., E.M. van Putten, and P.C.J.M. Janssen, 2007, RIVM: Bilthoven, the Netherlands
- Small quantities of nitrosamines emitted but not detectable in air; nitrosamine related health effects not likely.
Thomas Ledoux, Ph.D., New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, June 2007
- With the possible exception of allergic reactions among individuals sensitized to latex, rubber and related products, there was "no obvious toxicological concern" raised that crumb rubber in its intended outdoor use on playgrounds and playing fields would cause adverse health effects in the normal population.
Broderick, J.C., E. Vonderhorst, Editor, J.C. Broderick & Associates, Inc.: Port Washington, NY., 2007
Sullivan, J.P., Ardea Consulting: Woodland, CA. p. 1-43, 2006
Norwegian Institute of Public Health and the Radium Hospital, 2006, Oslo. p. 1-34.
- Recycled rubber granulate contains many chemical substances which are potentially harmful to health. The concentrations of these substances are however extremely low, they are only leached from the rubber granulate in very small quantities and they are only present in low concentrations in the hall air.
- It has been concluded that exposure to benzene and PAHs in the quantities in which they have been measured in the halls will not cause any increased risk of cancer using the halls.
- Chemical substances are released in very low quantities; based on worst case assumptions, use of artificial turf halls does not pose elevated risk; more information needed on natural rubber allergens.
FIFA, Prof. Dr. Jiri Dvorak, July 2006
- "The majority of the studies have been on higher surface area particles and have concluded they are currently acceptable. Therefore the larger granules used in artificial turf will have even less potential for emissions. For example a study undertaken by the Danish Ministry of the Environment concluded that the health risk on children’s playgrounds that contained both worn tyres and granulate rubber was insignificant. The available body of research does not substantiate the assumption that cancer resulting from exposure to SBR granulate infills in artificial turf could potentially occur.”
The Swedish Chemicals Inspectorate (Kemi), KEMIKALIENIMSPEKTIONEN Sundbyberg. p. 1-31, 2006
Luhana, L., et al., 2004, Deliverable 8 of European Commission DG TrEn 5th Framework PARTICULATES Project
- In comparison to the indoor fields, 7.5 percent of PM10 at an urban Switzerland curb side sampling location was attributed to tire wear particles. The fraction of PM10 attributed to tire wear particles was 2 percent at an urban background site. The levels of PM10 attributable to ground rubber measured at Norwegian fields appear to be similar in magnitude levels attributed in ambient air near roadways or tunnels. Typical ambient tire wear particle concentrations of PM10 or total suspended particulate are 2-5 μg/m3 for roadways and 10-20 μg/m3 for tunnels. Research to date has shown a highly variable distribution between fine (< 2.5 μm) and coarse (>7 μm) in airborne roadside tire wear particles.
Kallqvist, T., Norwegian Institute for Water Research: Oslo. p. 1-19, 2005
Plesser, Thale S.W., Lund, J. Ole, Norwegian Building Research Institute, September 2004
- Rubber granules contain lead, cadmium, copper, mercury, zinc, PAHs, phthalates, 4- toctylphenol and isononylphenol.
- Concentration of lead, cadmium, copper and mercury in the rubber granules is below the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority’s normative values for most sensitive land use and probably does not constitute an unacceptable environmental risk in the short or the long term.
- Concentrations of zinc and PAH in the recycled rubber granules exceed the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority’s normative values for most sensitive land use. The concentrations of dibutylphthalate (DBP) and diisononylphthalate (DINP) exceed the PNEC values for terrestrial life.
- Concentration of isononylphenol is above the limits specified for cultivated land in the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines.
- Leachate from the recycled granulates contain zinc, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), phthalates and phenols. The concentration of zinc indicates that the leachate water is placed in the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority’s Environmental Quality Class V (very strongly polluted water), but is lower than the permissible zinc concentration in Canadian drinking water. The concentration of anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene and nonylphenols exceed the limits for freshwater specified in the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines.
- The recycled rubber granulates give off a significant number of alkylated benzenes in gaseous form. Trichloromethane (sample 1) and cis-1,2-dichlorethene (sample 5) were also found.
Birkholz, D.A., K.L. Belton, and T.L. Guidotti, J. Air & Waste Management Association, July 2003
- "Genotoxicity testing of tire crumb samples following solvent extraction concluded that no DNA or chromosome-damaging chemicals were present. This suggests that ingestion of small amounts of tire crumb by small children will not result in an unacceptable hazard of contracting cancer.”
- We conclude that the use of tire crumb in playgrounds results in minimal hazard to children and the receiving environment.
- Extracts were not genotoxic and exposure potential in children deemed minimal; tire rubber at playgrounds does not pose a health hazard to children.
- An exposure assessment performed to address the potential health risks to children playing in facilities where tire crumb is used as ground cover concluded that there was little potential for an exposure sufficient to cause ad- verse health effects in children.
U.S. EPA, National Center for Environmental Assessment–Washington Office, September 2002
- Supplemental chronic risk estimates based on a child's typical incidental ingestion rate of 100 mg/day, as prescribed by the U.S. EPA’s Child-Specific Exposure Factors Handbook, indicate that regular exposure (e.g., regular play on ground rubber filled athletic fields) to ground rubber for the length of one’s childhood does not increase risk of cancer above levels considered by the state of California to be de minimus (i.e. a lifetime excess cancer risk of 10-6) or pose a likelihood of non-cancer effects (i.e. hazard index less than one).
Humphrey, D.N. and E.K. Lynn, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Maine, March 2001
- Tire shreds have a negligible impact on groundwater quality at neutral pH.
Chang, F.H., et al., J Hazard Mater, 1999. 70(1-2): p. 1-20
- From 67 to 160 °F, the vapor pressure of benzothiazole increases by a factor of almost 40. However, based on a study of a synthetic rubber athletic track, total VOC emissions are estimated to increase by a factor of only 2 over the same range. No exposure estimates or risk calculations were determined based on results from this study. However, total VOC concentration at breathing height above the track was 0.39 μg/m3.
Liu, Helen S., et. al., Department of Plastics Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell, August 1998
- Recycled rubber derived from scrap tires is a safe recyclable material. Based on the evidence presented, the overwhelming conclusion is that it would be reasonable to recommend use of recycled scrap tires in civil engineering applications.
National Athletic Trainers’ Association, July 8, 2010
- News Release highlighting key recommendations made in NATA’s Official Position Statement below.
Helen M. Binkley; Joseph Beckett†; Douglas J. Casa; Douglas M. Kleiner; Paul E. Plummer
Journal of Athletic Training, Volume 37, Number 3, September 2002, pp. 329–34
- Recommendations for the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses.
Staph & MRSA »
Chemicals and Particulates in the Air Above the New Generation of Artificial Turf Playing Fields, and Artificial Turf as a Risk Factor for Infection by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylcoccus Aureus (MRSA)
Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Environmental Protection Agency, July 2009
- There is a negligible human health risk from inhaling the air above synthetic turf, and, though data gaps exist, it is "unlikely that the new generation of artificial turf is itself a source of MRSA….” (Significantly the OEHHA did not review the January 2009 results of the study into the lifespan of staph on grass and synthetic turf sponsored by the STC and the Pennsylvania Turfgrass Council - see below.)
- The OEHHA summary of the results is available here: http://www.calrecycle.ca.gov/tires/products/bizassist/health/turfstudy/litreview.htm
- The full report includes an important Addendum that references reports by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation and Department of Health (May 2009) and the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (March 2009) - see below.
Andy McNitt, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Soil Science, Penn State University, December 2008.
A research project funded by the Synthetic Turf Council and the Pennsylvania Turfgrass Council
- A study to examine the survival of S. aureus on infilled synthetic turf systems and natural turfgrass under different environmental conditions and to evaluate the effectiveness of various control agents applied to the synthetic turf.
- S. aureus survived for as long on natural turfgrass as it did on synthetic turf systems in both indoor and outdoor settings. S. aureus lived longest indoors, but can be effectively treated with commercially available antimicrobial treatments as well as detergents. Outdoors S. aureus has a very low rate of survival, particularly when exposed to UV light and higher temperatures.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, July 2008
Andy McNitt, Ph.D., Associate of Professor of Soil Science, Penn State University, and Dianne Petrunak, M.S., and Thomas Serensits, M.S., June 2007
- A survey to determine the microbial population of several crumb rubber infilled synthetic turf systems and natural turfgrass fields.
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